“Vivisection is barbaric, useless and a hindrance to scientific progress. There are, in fact, only two categories of doctors and scientists who are not opposed to vivisection: those who do not know enough about it, and those who make money from it. ”
Dr. Werner Hartinger, German surgeon (author of The Animals are Our Brothers and Sisters) 1989
Let’s see why the animal testing may not give relevant results to humans.
Some species differences may be evident (anatomy, morphology, behavior, etc.) while others can only be detected with scientific instruments (genetics, metabolism, physiology, etc.)
Genetic Differences – The chimpanzee is the most similar animal to humans. It should theoretically be the best model. viral diseases offer a clear example of the opposite: infected with the AIDS virus, the chimpanzee is not affected; infected with hepatitis B, it can only develop a mild hepatitis, which does not progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer as usually happens with us; infected with Ebola, he dies of hemorrhagic fever like us. How can we expect to find a therapeutic solution for us to study an organism that behaves sometimes randomly, sometimes like ours, sometimes differently and sometimes the complete opposite?
Each species has a unique genetic heritage. The human body has between 20,000 and 25,000 genes and each gene comprises a sequence of molecules (ACGT bases) used for the production of a particular protein that provides a biological function in our body.
Sometimes two species have similarities, but they are never sufficient to allow these species to serve as a biological template for the other.
The human genome and the chimpanzee are similar to 98.76%. The human genome contains several billion bases and a single base can cause dramatic biological effects (e.g., hemophilia). So imagine the potential differences when 1.24% of the bases, tens of millions of people differ.
The human population is a heterogeneous group in which there is great variability among individuals. A person may be affected differently by a single toxic dose; and the same person may react differently at different times of his life.
Two main factors help explain the nature and extent of toxic effects.
Hereditary factors. Differences in the gene may play a role in people’s ability to metabolize toxic substances.
The physiological factors that are many and include:
– Age: sensitivity to toxic effects is different in infants, young children and the elderly
– The nutritional status toxicity may be influenced by adipose tissue mass, dehydration, vitamin deficiency …
– Pregnancy causes changes in the metabolic activity of the body and therefore of xenobiotics during pregnancy
– Health: healthy individuals are more resistant because they can metabolize and eliminate toxins more quickly than those with damage to the liver or kidney, where these two phenomena occur, respectively.
However, toxicologists and researchers use in animal testing chemical and biomedical research. They then try to extrapolate the results to humans.
Extrapolating the results to humans
To study the condition which exists only in humans (AIDS, human cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.) The animals are modified to mimic the disease. Some are genetically engineered to be defective, others undergo invasive surgery to damage an organ (eg, laboratories and universities try to recreate parkinsonism in primates damaging your brain).
The research process can be summarized as follows:
– The observation of a pathology in human patients.
– Create a similar disease in animals.
– Find a treatment for emulated condition.
– Attempts to extrapolate the remedy for humans.
human diseases are usually related to our lifestyle and, more rarely, a genetic problem. Attempting to recreate the symptoms of human disease in animals, which does not spontaneously develop the disease, it is a waste of time and money. The results are not transferable to humans and can even be dangerous. To protect and heal the human being, we must use methods based on human data. They are ethical, reliable and low cost, as opposed to animal testing.
Examples of outcome differences between species
Aspirin is the most widely used drug in the world, but it is fatal to 99% of all animal species. Fortunately, this substance was discovered before the animal experiments came into force. If the researchers had tested on animals, they simply would have deprived humanity of this medicine.
– A sheep can ingest arsenic in any amount without suffering any consequences.
– Rabbits can eat green hemlock, highly poisonous mushroom to humans.
– Salsa kills parrots.
– A handful of almonds can kill a fox.
– Lemon juice is fatal to the cat.
– Morphine, which soothes and relieves humans, causes mice and cats come in mad excitement.
– Penicillin is lethal to mice.
– For nearly 120 years, cats, dogs and monkeys are subject to continuous testing of tobacco. They are forced to inhale smoke from 6 to 10 hours a day, between 5 and 7 days a week, depending on the laboratory. These animals are trapped by the neck and masks constantly send cigarette smoke into your lungs. Unlike humans, none of the animals developed lung cancer.
Would you take veterinary medicines to cure a disease?